Otherworldly and Eschatological Priesthood in the Dead Sea Scrolls


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Study in this area requires intensive work with Jewish and non-Jewish texts, as well as 'epigraphic and archaeological evidence, using the tools of philology, literary criticism, and social scientific methods' Nickelsburg b There are several of these 'social scientific methods' Nickelsburg b refers to. In 4Qlnstruction cognitive verbalisation not only takes both wisdom and apocalyptic form, but in the case of 4Q, Fragment 2 III referred to below, it is conspicuous how references to the human body are used to teach the pupil correct conduct.

This means that conceptualising human experience on a cognitive basis includes doing it in bodily metaphorical terms. These body terms in Fragment 2 III can therefore be studied using the insights of Cognitive Liuingstics focusing on spatial imagery, and specifically the body in this case. In turn this will illustrate how wisdom and apocalyptic ideas are formulated in bodily terms. The focus on reading and editing the many fragmentary manuscripts from the Judean desert caused the neglect of keeping track with hermeneutical readings of the scrolls cf.

Brooke xv. Brooke addresses this problem in his publication on reading and analysing the Dead Sea scrolls. He pays inter alia attention to theories developed in the social sciences, like the deviance theory. His idea is that references to space in these pesharim were not only composed in the context of Qumran, but were also 'construed as reflecting the ideology of those who lived there' Brooke In Cognitive Linguistics a wide variety of human experiences are investigated, like space and time.

Humans conceptualise the experiences of these entities in metaphorical analogical terms, mostly in terms of their own bodies. In this regard Lakoff and Johnson inter alia proposed the embodied mind theory. This theory states that cognition is determined by the body. One's bodily experience forms the basis of one's perception of reality. These perceptions are translated into language 'via metaphorical expressions' Coetzee Bodily experience uses 'the motor system, the perceptual system, the body's interactions with the environment situatedness and the ontological assumptions about the world that are built into the body and the brain' Wikipedia It 'includes high level mental constructs such as concepts and categories and human performance on various cognitive tasks such as reasoning or judgment ' Malina indicated three areas of perception: emotion-fused thought, self-expressive speech, and purposeful action.

The zone of emotion-fused thought is composed of body parts such as the eyes, the heart and the eyelids. These organs are used to see, to recognise, to comprehend, to reflect and to decide cf. Coetzee The second category of expressive speech utilises the auditive organs such as the mouth, ears, tongue, lips, throat, teeth, jaws and their activities cf. The third zone of 'purposeful action includes hands, feet, arms, fingers, legs, and the activities of these organs' cf. Gillmayr-Bucher indicates that body imagery not only portrays experience with metaphorical language related to the body, but also characterises a person and reveals the 'underlying concepts of communication and valuation' of the person.

What is of importance here is her remark that one of the important functions of body image is that it establishes a relationship between the persons mentioned in communication, or, in the case of psalms literature 'between the psalmist and God' Mirguet studies the use 'of the body to express identity in Judeo-Hellenistic narratives'. The use of the body serves here as a marker of identity. There are 'essential components of human identity, at both a personal and collective level' These viewpoints can next be used to read 4Q, Fragment 2 III, where superfluous references to the body are found.

The major themes in this passage deal with caution in financial affairs, the need to study and learn, conduct towards the parents and towards the spouse cf. Several direct references to parts of the body are found in this passage: hand, face God's countenance , head, shoulder, heart.

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They are all related to the 'purposeful action' Coetzee of the body. Some of these references to the body are metaphorically, for instance, 'bring your shoulder under all instruction' 23 and 'purify your heart'. Bodily functions are indicated without referring directly to the part of the body concerned: rejoice by using the mouth , accept goods using your hand , lie in repose with the truth your body lying down , confused by your inheritance 25 passive voice of Hebrew bl' meaning 'consume with the mouth' cf.

These references belong to Malina's third zone of purposeful action cf. Identification in terms of the body is found in reflexive remarks like remembering who you are a poor person in want of food and property , desire nothing except your inheritance living with contentment and not desire , and lie in repose with the truth being intimate with what is the truth and therefore being a truthful person. Gillmayr-Bucher's idea that body image 'establishes a relationship between the persons mentioned' can also be applied here.

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The person being a whole body meets another body - be it human or the embodiment of an idea. For instance, if the addressee does not know a person he should not accept any money from him evaluating a relationship negatively ; he should praise God's name and seek his favour response with the body to God who gave him a position of honour ; God has set you with the nobles communion with people of importance, probably the angels; 26 honour father and mother relationship to people with whom he is genetically related.

The other bodies with whom the mebin [learner] stands in relation are depicted in metaphorical terms. Lifeless phenomena can act like living human beings who eat, attack and kill. If the person sets his hand upon what someone unknown has entrusted to him, its fire can burn his hand and devour his body dangerous relationship ; he should take responsibility of what was forced on him for life like caring for a child ; he should not let his spirit be seized by it be swallowed with its mouth by what was entrusted to him ; lying with the truth meaning he will be in an intimate relationship with truth.

Four pairs of items or persons are stated parallel to each other.

What is of utmost importance here is that the term raz nihyeh is used in all four cases. First pair is that he should not be confused about his inheritance and be lead astray by it, because then he will be able to walk in it leading the way not being lead where he does not want to go. This stands parallel with the conditional sentence in line 9, namely if he studies the raz nihyeh, he will know his inheritance and walk in it in righteousness the mystery will teach him the right direction to take.

His inheritance and this mystery he is investigating will both allow him righteous conduct. The second pair is that poverty should not keep him back from attaining knowledge seek for it, bring his shoulder under all instruction, study, examine. This is in parallel with line 14, namely to study the mystery and examine closely the ways of truth.

Again, as in the case of the inheritance and the mystery above seeking knowledge lines 12 and 13 and studying the mystery line 14 are paralleled to each other. Together both will enable him to live knowledgeable know what is bitter and what is sweet for man. The mystery God revealed to his ear line 18 and honouring the parents 28 line 18 will together 29 have an effect on his life and lengthen his days is the third pair.

Mystery and honouring the parents work together to better his life. The fourth case is that his willingness to live in harmony with the spouse he is married to line 20 stands in accordance with the mystery line 21 and will enhance his life. In this pair a connection can be found to 'the theme of marriage to supernatural revelation' Goff In all four of these cases the mystery is paralleled to his relationship with persons of embodied objects.

Bowley on Angel, 'Otherworldly and Eschatological Priesthood in the Dead Sea Scrolls'

Inheritance and the mystery will allow the person to walk in righteousness; knowledge and the mystery will enable him to know what is positive and what is negative for human life; honouring the parents and receiving the revealed mystery will enrich his life in quantity and quality; and his marriage and the mystery go hand in hand in his life. The agreement with Proverbs 8 is obvious. The raz nihyeh and the personified wisdom fulfil the same function.

In Proverbs 8 'a character sketch of wisdom' Brown loc. The link between wisdom and prudence, knowledge and righteousness in Proverbs is intended to create a bridge between the hearer and wisdom. It advances the 'values of righteousness, justice, and equity' loc. Wisdom invites the hearers to take her into their life. As Brown loc. When wisdom's speech moves from normative character to 'wisdom's primordial, albeit non-pre-existent, nature' Brown loc.

Within this context wisdom acts as 'crafts wo man' Murphy setting herself in relation to God and his creation and through the indelible link to the recipient of her words, enables him to experience God's creation in all it splendour. However, some changes are obvious. Whilst the wisdom in Proverbs 8 is the one calling upon the hearer to attend to her, here it is God himself who literally opens the ears by means of the mystery. It is a direct revelation by God.

Apocalyptic revelation and wisdom instruction come together here. God's mystery and the instructions stand on one line. It is also linked to the different areas of life: inheritance, knowledge and correct relation to his parents and his wife. It is again something to be appropriated, and to be identified with. The use of so many body references in this section indicates that the mystery is bodily and fully integrated into the listener's life.

It becomes part and parcel of his whole being. But in and through this mystery the reader becomes a person fully integrated in God' creation, taking part in all there is. Embodiedness plays a bigger role than in Proverbs 8. The mystery is in agreement with the wisdom in Proverbs with regard to its function in the hearer's life, but there is a conspicuous change in the character of the mystery here.

No longer is the listener only linked to the Urzeit cf. Koch of creation, but in and through the mystery his life is now extended to the future as well. The order of creation 'plays a defining role in the development of ethical character' Brown loc. Whether raz nihyeh is translated as present entity or as the mystery that will be, an avenue is opened up here for an extended chronological function of the mystery. It functions within the framework of a continuing Zeituniversum [time universe] Koch , a panchronistic immerhistoriese [ever historical] Venter context. There is not any chronological scheme here, but a confluence of traditional wisdom and the apocalyptic view of time.

An extension of space is also caused by the confluence of wisdom and apocalyptic literature. A supernatural aspect is probably indicated by the reference to the princes in line 11, if this is translated as angels. However, in the case of 4Q, Fragment 2 III there is not a supernatural intermediary angelus interpretus [interpreting angel] and no heavenly vision.


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There is not any heavenly scene here as in Job What is revealed here is indeed a transcendent reality in the form of God's raz nihyeh that dictates everything, but it is fully integrated into the lives of people. The world in which 4QInstruction operates is much larger than the horizontal world of Proverbs, including the transcendental, but is not divided into an up and a below.

Space is fully integrated here into one large cosmos ruled by God through his mystery. This is not wisdom on a resolute way to apocalyptic as Koch sees it, neither an apocalyptic extension into wisdom, but rather a confluence between the wisdom and the apocalyptic traditions with cross cultural influence on each other.

It reflects a changing world and time view in sapiential thinking where a hidden force behind all existence is identified with God's cosmic rule of everything he created. It is no longer a final system that God created at the beginning, but an abiding mystery that directs the cosmos right to the end. It is the task of the mebin [learner] to reflect on this all-penetrating mystery throughout his life.

The role the Torah played in priestly circles is duplicated here as the revealed and revealing wisdom God commissioned his faithful to search for with all their heart all through their life. This article is dedicated to my colleague Jan du Rand in appreciation of his research on New Testament apocalyptic literature. Financial support by the NRF is recognised. The author declares that he has no financial or personal relationship s that may have inappropriately influenced him in writing this article. Apocalyptic literature, a, Definitions and related terms, viewed 06 Aug.


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Brooke, G. Early Judaism and its Literature, Brown, W. Kindle edn. Coetzee, J. Collins, J. Perdue, B. Wiseman eds. Garcia Martinez ed. Crenshaw, J. Elgvin, T.

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Schiffman, E. Tov, J. Marquis eds. Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, July , Fox, M. Garcia Martinez, F. Gillmayr-Bucher, S. Goff, M. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum, Gravett, E. Harrington, D. Horsley, R. Society of biblical Literature Seminar Papers Kampen, J. Knibb, M. Koch, K. Lakoff, G. Lange, A. Malina, B. Mirguet, F. Word biblical Commentary, Nickelsburg, G. Wills eds.

Nitzan, B. Saur, M. Electronic copy. Strugnell, J. Tanzer, S. Tigchelaar, E. Venter, P. A , Universiteit van Pretoria, Pretoria. Von Rad, G. Wikipedia, , 'Embodied cognition', viewed 06 November , from www. Wright III, B. Williamson, R. Received: 12 Jan. Collins a says: 'The this-worldly character of wisdom, however, often serves as a counterpoint to apocalypticism, which appeals very explicitly to extraordinary revelations, in the Hellenistic period.

There are two groups studying wisdom literature in the Society of biblical Literature. The Wisdom and Apocalypticism Group aims at redefining wisdom and apocalyptic genres finding the historical and social location of texts belonging to these two categories. The parallel group Wisdom in Israelite and cognate Traditions focuses on wisdom literature found in the Bible and contemporary literature in the ancient Near East searching for new ways to understand this type of literature.

The standard terms used in the literature are 'wisdom' and 'apocalyptic'. When the term is used in this article without quotation marks, it is used in an adjectival sense, for example: wisdom literature and apocalyptic literature. Revised for the congress volume by Wright and Wills Armin Lange is of the same opinion. The translation of Goff is followed here. Goff , note 6 for the fragments that overlap with one another. Goff refers to 'a synoptic situation'. For a more extensive discussion of fragments overlapping cf. According to Harrington parts of the original work are also preserved in 1Q These are the names given to these manuscripts by Strugnell, Harrington and Elgvin Collins a describes the available manuscripts as 'extremely fragmentary', partly because the original 'was loosely structured at best'.

Goff remarks that the reconstruction of 4Qlnstruction 'is not a major issue in terms of the interpretation of the work', as wisdom texts have a loose organisational form anyhow. For a discussion of the contents of 4Q, 4Q and 4Q, cf. According to Collins a this document is not addressed to 'the Jewish society at large, but to those who share an understanding of this mystery and therefore have been initiated into some kind of movement Goff for the different possibilities for the translation of the phrase. Koch says that nhyh is in the participium, and 'keine Zeitstufe [ist] eindeutig' [no single time stage].

It can be translated in different ways: mystery that came into being, mystery that is to come, existing mystery. Koch sees the term as referring not just to the beginning of time or its end, but also the dazwischen ablaufende Geschichte' [continuing history between the two]. According to Goff , Lange sees 4QInstruction as continuation of sapiential tradition, but representing a stage of where wisdom is in a crisis. According to Goff, Elgvin sees 4QInstruction as more determined by apocalypticism than traditional wisdom cf.

For a similar caveat cf. Goff chooses for a time when apocalyptic tradition was flourishing in the 2nd century BCE. This theory investigates the phenomenon of groups willingly deviating from normative behaviour cf. Brooke Goff interprets this as 'a call to study'. Goff reads the instruction to purify the heart as meaning that the mebin should focus on 'understanding the special "inheritance" that God has given him'. Goff understands this term as 'a special allotment given to particular individuals by God' that dictates their station in life.

This inheritance has both worldly and heavenly aspects and can even include affinity with the angels and eternal life after death. Both Goff and Kampen understand nobles to refer to the angels. The mebin shares his lot with the angels. Goff interprets truth as expressing 'an affinity between God and the elect', therefore a relationship not only with embodied truth but also with God. Filial piety has a theological rationale. Honouring the parents is the same as honouring God. Factum est silentium in caelo, Dum committeret bellum draco cum Michaele Archangelo.

Audita est vox millia millium dicentium: Salus, honor et virtus omnipotenti Deo. Millia millium minestrabant ei et decies centena millia assistebant ei. Variant 1: Dum draco committeret bellum et Michael pugnavit cum eo et fecit victoriam. The voice of a thousand thousand was heard saying: Salvation, honour and power be to almighty God. A thousand thousand ministered to him and ten hundreds of thousands stood before him.

Variant 1: for a serpent was waging war; and Michael fought with him and emerged victorious. Sign In Don't have an account? For the story by Leland Exton Modesitt Jr. Modesitt Jr. Contents [ show ]. See also: Cherub in Eden. Error creating thumbnail: Invalid thumbnail parameters.

War in Heaven. War in Heaven by Pieter Paul Rubens , Michael fights rebel angels, by Johann Georg Unruhe Michael fights rebel angels, by Sebastiano Ricci , c. Michael and Satan, by Guido Reni , c. The fall of the rebel angels , by Charles Le Brun , after Michael and the Dragon. There was silence in heaven When the dragon fought with the Archangel Michael.

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State University of New York. Archived from the original on 16 May Retrieved Michael the Archangel". New York: The Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 28, In Ludlow, Daniel H. New York: Macmillan Publishing. Eugene Boring; Fred B. Craddock The People's New Testament Commentary. Westminster: John Knox Press. Neither here nor elsewhere do biblical authors give speculative 'explanations' about the origin of Satan or evil.

Such a myth had developed in pre-Christian Judaism En. That is not the picture in this story, which does not take place in primeval times but at the eschatological time of the establishment of God's kingdom by the life, death, and exaltation of Jesus [ Archived from the original on 21 May The seat of this war was in heaven; in the church of Christ, the kingdom of heaven on earth.

The parties were Christ, the great Angel of the covenant, and his faithful followers; and Satan and his instruments. The strength of the church is in having the Lord Jesus for the Captain of their salvation. Pagan idolatry, which was the worship of devils, was cast out of the empire by the spreading of Christianity. By the word of their testimony: the powerful preaching of the gospel is mighty, through God, to pull down strong holds. By their courage and patience in sufferings: they loved not their lives so well but they could lay them down in Christ's cause.

These were the warriors and the weapons by which Christianity overthrew the power of pagan idolatry; and if Christians had continued to fight with these weapons, and such as these, their victories would have been more numerous and glorious, and the effects more lasting. The redeemed overcame by a simple reliance on the blood of Christ, as the only ground of their hopes.

Leathley Dublin , "7. The world lighted: a study of the Apocalypse.

Otherworldly and Eschatological Priesthood in the Dead Sea Scrolls Otherworldly and Eschatological Priesthood in the Dead Sea Scrolls
Otherworldly and Eschatological Priesthood in the Dead Sea Scrolls Otherworldly and Eschatological Priesthood in the Dead Sea Scrolls
Otherworldly and Eschatological Priesthood in the Dead Sea Scrolls Otherworldly and Eschatological Priesthood in the Dead Sea Scrolls
Otherworldly and Eschatological Priesthood in the Dead Sea Scrolls Otherworldly and Eschatological Priesthood in the Dead Sea Scrolls
Otherworldly and Eschatological Priesthood in the Dead Sea Scrolls Otherworldly and Eschatological Priesthood in the Dead Sea Scrolls
Otherworldly and Eschatological Priesthood in the Dead Sea Scrolls Otherworldly and Eschatological Priesthood in the Dead Sea Scrolls
Otherworldly and Eschatological Priesthood in the Dead Sea Scrolls Otherworldly and Eschatological Priesthood in the Dead Sea Scrolls

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