Here he defeated two tribal confederations and was voted a Triumph by the Senate, a singular mark of honor for the young aristocrat. Caesar used this as a pretext to intervene in the area, which was outside the Empire. He beat back the Helvetia and massacred many German tribes. Once more, ever the opportunist Caesar used this as an excuse to invade Gaul.
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He was to spend the following years conquering the Celts who were organized into powerful confederation. Caesar in a series of battles defeated major tribes such as the Belgae.
Caesar was able to extend his consulship as part of a deal with Pompey and Crassus. The commander launched an invasion of Britain, to punish tribes who were supporting his Gallic opponents 55 BCE. The Roman also raided deep into Germany to deter the Germanic tribes from intervening in Gaul. A massive Gallic army surrounded the Romans at Allesia, but despite this, the legionnaires prevailed. The Roman general had conducted what many regarded as an illegal war and the Senate threatened him with the prosecution. To avert this Caesar marched on Rome with his army and occupied the city.
Who Was Julius Caesar?
This led to a civil war between him and the optimates senators , who were led by Pompey. They fled to the Balkans and recruited a large army. Caesar landed in the Balkans and attacked the Optimates army under the command of Pompey. This campaign was very difficult for Caesar and he was lucky to escape a decisive defeat. Caesar was out-numbered, and his opponent was a great general. He was able to defeat the numerically superior enemy at the Battle of Pharsalus. He enemies were shattered and fled all over the known world. Caesar followed Pompey to Egypt but found his old foe had been assassinated by orders of the Ptolemies.
The civil war was not over, and the senators and the followers of Pompey regrouped in North Africa. Caesar pursued them and landed in modern Tunisia. He fought a bloody draw with his old subordinate Titus Labienus at the battle of Ruspina. However, after receiving some reinforcements he inflicted a decisive defeat on his enemies, at the battle of Thapsus and this led to the suicide of many prominent senators including Cato the Younger. He knew that as long as his enemies were in the field that he was not secure. The remaining senators and Pompeiians regrouped in Spain and once more assembled a large army.
This was the end of the civil wars and the Roman general was supreme ruler in Rome and had himself made dictator for life. In Rome, he began to plan invasions of Dacia and Parthia but before he could embark on these campaigns he was assassinated in 44 BCE.
One of the reasons for Caesar's success was his great leadership. He was a charismatic leader and he could persuade his men to do anything and to do the impossible. This can be seen time and time again. Caesar was able to rally his men at Alessia and persuade them to attack numerically superior forces on many battlefields. Caesars ability to motivate his men and galvanize them into action was unmatched and even his enemies acknowledged this.
Born to power
His men were devoted to him and they loved their general. They obeyed him and unlike many contemporary armies they were very well disciplined. Caesar was fortunate to have at his disposal some of the finest soldiers in the ancient era, this and his leadership skills meant that his forces were often invincible even in the most difficult of circumstances. Like Alexander the Great, he was his own best soldier. While his officers were mainly nobles he usually promoted them only on merit.
A good example of this was Mark Anthony, who became his commander of his cavalry and proved to be fearless in battle. Caesers belief in merit was unique and this meant that he was supported by many gifted officers who could execute his orders effectively.
Artillery was a regular feature of the ancient battlefield. In the ancient world, artillery referred to large weapons that could fire bolts, stones or projectiles.
The Roman Empire: in the First Century. The Roman Empire. Emperors. Julius Caeser | PBS
These were very effective, and they were routinely used in sieges by both the defenders and the attackers. They were mainly used for defensive purposes because they were bulky and not very mobile. Caesar in his campaigns in Gaul brought these weapons in his train, for sieges.
These included the ballista which could fire massive bolts and catapults, that could hurl rocks a great distance. Caesar in Gaul began to use these not as defensive weapons but as offensive weapons. He was able to integrate these weapons into his offensive strategies and employ them in conjunction with the legionnaires and cavalry. This allowed the Roman general to attack much larger forces and defeat them.
What made Julius Caesar a great general?
This forced the hand of a friend of Caesar, Marcus Junius Brutus, who then conspired with others to murder the dictator and restore the Republic. In 42 BC, two years after his assassination, the Roman Senate officially sanctified him as one of the Roman deities. Caesar's military campaigns are known in detail from his own written Commentaries Commentarii , and many details of his life are recorded by later historians, such as Appian, Suetonius, Plutarch, Cassius Dio and Strabo.
Other information can be gleaned from other contemporary sources, such as the letters and speeches of Caesar's political rival Cicero, the poetry of Catullus and the writings of the historian Sallust. Life Early life. This reference article is mainly selected from the English Wikipedia with only minor checks and changes see www. See also our Disclaimer. The conspirators never met openly, but they assembled a few at a time in each others' homes.
There were many discussions and proposals, as might be expected, while they investigated how and where to execute their design. Some suggested that they should make the attempt as he was going along the Sacred Way, which was one of his favourite walks. Another idea was for it to be done at the elections during which he had to cross a bridge to appoint the magistrates in the Campus Martius; they should draw lots for some to push him from the bridge and for others to run up and kill him.
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