Fibers made of shape memory alloys SMAs not only provide the structure with mechanical but also functional properties. At high temperatures, SMAs behave pseudo-elasticity and may recover large deformations during mechanical loading-unloading patterns producing hysteresis [ 12 , 26 , 27 ]. SMA composites, fabricated by embedding SMA fibers into a host material, usually a composite, have shown potential applicability in a wide variety of smart systems and structures [ 12 , 27 ]. Design concepts of SMA fiber-reinforced aluminum matrix composite are presented in Figure 2 [ 28 ]. Design concept of shape memory alloy fiber-reinforced aluminum matrix Composite [ 28 ].
An optical fiber is made of two layers i. The light is guided through the fiber because of the slight refractive index difference between the two layers [ 29 ]. Sensors made of optical fibers [ 30 ] have excellent corrosion resistance and long lifetime. In addition, they are reliable, passive, and they do not require re-calibration overtime. In general, fiber optic sensors can be divided into three types: interferometric, distributed, and grating-based sensors.
In interferometric based sensor, physical change in structure is reflected by the phase change of the two interfering light signals. FBGs are one of the different optical fiber configurations [ 31 ].
They are usually photo-inscribed into a silica fiber for sensing purposes. FBGs are intrinsically sensitive to external stimulus such as temperature, pressure and strain; and yield a wavelength-encoded response, which can be recorded and processed [ 32 ]. Optical fibers have outstanding characteristics and properties such as lightweight, immunity to electromagnetic interference, stability, and little signal loss over very long distances.
A summary of the mechanical and physical properties of different types of optical fibers that can be used as sensors and a list of measurands that can be monitored using optical fiber sensors were provided by Fernando [ 33 ]. Design concept of aluminum embedded with FBG sensors was already disclosed in [ 34 ]. Figure 4 shows an example of fibres embedding inside aluminum.
It is worth noting that embedability in solid materials can be challenging, depending on the embedding depth and length needed for the fibers. Design concept of aluminum embedded with FBG sensors: a glueing and b ultrasonic embedding. Embedding of fibers in a matrix mainly depends on the type of the fiber and matrix. Conventional discontinuous and continuous fibers are embedded in composites by casting, diffusion bonding, metal spray, or electrodeposition techniques.
These methods have some limitations such as elevated processing temperatures, high cost of tooling, and limitations on geometrical complexity [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. Smart fibers can be embedded in metals using techniques such as pressure casting, squeeze casting, pressure infiltration, hot pressing, spark plasma sintering, and ultrasonic consolidation [ 12 ]. As for optical fiber sensors although they were successfully embedded in polymer matrix composites [ 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 ], because of their flexibility, strength, and heat resistance; their use in metallic structures is very limited.
This is because embedding fiber sensors in metals and alloys may lead to sensor degradation and sensitivity loss at high temperature [ 11 ]. Fortunately, embedding of fiber sensors in metallic materials is possible using ultrasonic consolidation UC [ 38 ] and laser based manufacturing processes LLM [ 10 , 39 ].
In the following section, UC and LLM processes are discussed in detail because of their high potential to integrate fibers without disruption. In addition, pre-embedding processes used to protect fiber sensors are highlighted. The ultrasonic consolidation UC process, Figure 5 a, is a layer manufacturing process [ 40 ] that was invented by White [ 41 ].
It permits the deposition and bonding of metal foils layer by layer to create solid parts [ 40 , 42 ]. These features allow certain components, prone to damage or sensitive to high temperatures to be embedded in a structure as shown in Figure 5 b. The process was used to embed active [ 7 , 43 ], passive [ 44 ], and optical fibers [ 38 ] within aluminum matrices.
In the UC process, the bond quality is controlled through the sonotrode clamping force, sonotrode oscillation amplitude at a given frequency, and sonotrode speed. In addition, the foil thickness, width and surface roughness influence the bond characteristics and quality [ 45 ]. The process permits extremely novel functionality to be achieved such as structures with embedded fiber sensors [ 46 ]. The UC process was successfully used by Kong and coworkers [ 47 ] to weld unprepared and surface prepared aluminum foils.
The authors reported: i The existence of mainly Mg 2 O films, on the mating surfaces during the ultrasonic welding of Al foils. These oxides may prevent the formation of metallic bonds; however, cleaning of foils prior to welding led to the formation of true metallic bonds. On the other hand, the oxides could be compacted together to form ceramic-based bonds. A linear increase in linear weld density was observed at high amplitude settings. However, the inverse was true for the peel test specimens produced at high amplitudes, where bonds could be weakened due to excessive strain-hardening and cyclic stressing of the contact points.
Figure 6 a shows micrographs of Al unprepared specimen welded using UC. Approximately nm thick oxide barrier layer along the weld interface was present. Micrographs of Al prepared specimen welded using UC, Figure 6 b, shows weld interface with contact points and oxides dispersed along the interface. The UC process was also used to embed different fibers in metallic structures as will be discussed below.
Micrographs of Al foils a unprepared and b surface prepared welded using UC [ 47 ]. Physical parts are fabricated layer-by-layer using laser layered manufacturing LLM processes. The LLM process permits building parts that have traditionally been impossible to build because of their complex shapes or variety in materials. In particular, sensors embedded within the structural materials add intelligence to structures and enable real-time monitoring at some critical locations not accessible to ordinary sensors, which must be attached to the surface. Moreover, embedded sensors are also protected from damage caused by extraneous environmental effects.
Conventional and smart fibers might be embedded in metallic materials without pre-preparation or special treatments. Therefore, optical fibers need to be protected during the embedding process to overcome the temperature and stress induced by the embedding process. In this case, the soft polymer coating on the optical fiber must be replaced by a protective metallic layer [ 50 ]. Figure 8 shows procedures to coat FBG sensors with tin by dipping method [ 50 ]. Coating procedures and fabricated sensors [ 50 ]. Sang-Woo et al. They found significant amount of residual strain in tin-coated FBG sensors because of the elasto-plastic characteristics of the tin coating.
However, the bare FBG sensors were almost strain free. Failure strength tests were performed and comparison of failure parameters of bare FBG sensors and tin-coated FBG sensors Figure 9 were carried out. The authors found that tin coating was useful and contributed to protecting the sensors. The median failure strength of tin-coated FBG sensors was The Weibull modulus values were found to be Another method to protect fibers from the damage that may be caused by the increase in the UC sonotrode oscillation amplitude is to form a groove in the matrix material using a fiber laser, as shown in Figure 10 , prior to fiber placement and subsequent UC.
This permits the reduction of the required amplitude, and thus the necessary matrix plastic flow [ 40 ]. Channels were created in the samples using fiber laser irradiation Figure 10 a. The authors found that the most important parameters, for channel creation, were the laser power density and traverse speed. They concluded that laser is a promising tool for the creation of channels, which may allow embedding of high volume fractions of fibers in metals and alloys to produce metal matrix composites using the UC process [ 40 ].
It is worth mentioning here that embedding using UC method is only possible in foils to thin plates up to around 1 mm and embedding is at the surface. Some challenge arises to embed in depth and in larger plates compared to previous with UC method. The low strength and stiffness of metals has led to the development of fiber metal matrix composites where strong and rigid fibers such as SiC are embedded in ductile metal or alloy matrix such as aluminum.
Analysis of the literature shows that SiC fibers were mainly embedded in aluminum alloys through ultrasonic consolidation to manufacture fiber-reinforced metal matrix composite MMC parts. Researchers had investigated the influence of process parameters on fiber embedment, characterized the interface between the fibers and matrix, and evaluated the mechanical properties of the developed materials. They reported an increase in the hardness of the alloy, especially at regions close to the fibers.
The authors found that work hardening followed the Hall-Petch relationship for both grains and sub-grains. The work hardening in the O matrix was found to be higher than that in the O matrix. Typical microstructures of original foils and fiber embedded samples after nanoindentation are shown in Figure 11 [ 51 ]. For the investigated alloys H18, O and O, the microstructure was composed of small particles dispersed in Al phases. For the SiC fibers embedded samples Figure 11 b,c , some points in the matrices around the fibers marked with circles had much higher hardness than the Al alloys.
However, for single mode fiber SM embedded samples, the indentations around the SM fiber had similar sizes and the indentations in H18 matrix were smaller than those in O matrix Figure 11 d. Microstructures of original foils and fiber embedded samples after nanoindentation: a original foils; b SiC fibers embedded in O; c SiC fibers embedded in O; and d a single mode optical fiber embedded in H18 and O foil width direction: horizontal [ 51 ]. In another investigation, the same authors [ 52 ] embedded continuous SiC fibers in an Al O alloy through ultrasonic consolidation at room temperature and determined the optimum embedding parameters through peel tests and metallographic analysis.
In addition, they investigated the influence of the embedded fiber volume fraction and base metal thickness on the interface bond strength. The authors found that that friction at the consolidation interface is the main factor that influences interfacial bond strength. On the other hand, safe and full embedding of the fibers depended to large extent on the localized plastic flow around them. The optimum parameters for ultrasonic consolidation of SiC fibers in a O matrix were found to be: pressure from The consolidation strength in central areas of foil was higher than that at edges for monolithic samples and samples with one SiC fiber embedded due to a smaller load applied to the edges of the foil.
However, for samples with more than five SiC fibers embedded, the consolidation strength in the central and edge areas became more even. The bond interface between SiC fibers and the O matrix was strong, and the failure of samples during fiber pullout tests was caused by the break of the SiC fiber itself. After embedding 0. The authors found that none of the consolidated materials showed evidence of mechanical interlocking, localized metal melting, significant diffusion, or recrystallization at the weld interface. Bond formation between metal foils, at solid-state, was attributed to the atomic level forces across the nascent metal contact points.
The authors concluded that the formation of bonds in ultrasonic consolidation mainly depends on the removal of surface oxide layers attained through frictional effects at the weld interface. On the other hand, interfacial plastic deformation facilitates intimate metal contact.
Overview of aluminum alloy mechanical properties during and after fires
The SiC fibers were mechanically entrapped in the matrix and diffusion or chemical reactions between fiber and matrix materials were not seen in the consolidated materials. The authors attributed the sound fiber embedment during UC to the plastic deformation of the matrix material.
Note the aluminum flow around the fiber into the Cu side shown by arrows [ 53 ]. The effectiveness of ultrasonically embedded SiC fibers in reinforcing Al matrix was investigated by Yang and coworkers [ 54 ]. The authors reported a significant improvement in peel strength and tensile strength of the consolidated parts.
Samples reinforced with SiC fibers were found to have high peel and tensile strengths compared to unreinforced samples. However, the unreinforced samples showed better shear strength than those reinforced with SiC fibers. In another investigation [ 44 ], the UC process was used to embed SiC fibers in Al alloy [ 44 ]. The plastic deformation and flow of the matrix were found to cause sound fiber embedment.
It was reported that the oscillation amplitude, welding speed, normal force, substrate temperature, and fiber orientation strongly affected the bond strength between the fibers and matrix. Zhu et al. High-resolution electron backscatter diffraction was used to evaluate the influence of process parameters on the microstructure of AA alloy and SiC reinforced AA composite. The authors reported that ultrasonic vibration induced grain refinement, along the bond area, and affected the crystallographic orientation.
Additional plastic flow occurred around the fiber led to the fiber embedding [ 55 ]. Sigma silicon carbide SiC fibers were also successfully embedded in alloys, without damage to the fibers, because of plastic flow of the matrix around the fibers [ 8 ]. An active FRM embedded with functional fibers [ 57 ].
In addition, fibers made of Shape Memory Alloys SMAs could be embedded in structures to provide not only mechanical but also functional properties. The fabrication method greatly influences the interface between the fiber and matrix. In addition, the authors pointed out to few issues such as phase stability, aging or degradation, and transformation hysteresis under particular constraints, which remain not well understood. AMCs: aluminum matrix composites. SMAs: shape memory alloys.
Hahnlen and Dapino [ 83 ] embedded NiTi fibers in Al H18 matrix using UC, investigated the strength of the fiber-matrix interface, and developed a constitutive composite model. They reported an average shear strength of 7. They found that the interfacial shear strength and the blocking force are not dependent upon length of the embedded NiTi elements, but the shear stress at the interface is inversely proportional to ribbon length.
Examination of the NiTi-Al interface did not reveal metallurgical bonding or diffusion. The authors concluded that two additional avenues for strengthening the interface are possible: First, through promoting metallurgical bonding via oxide layer removal prior to embedding. Second, through the increase in a textured surface on the NiTi ribbon. This will not limit the composite failure to only failure of the interface. They reported that the apparent bonding between fibers and the matrix was relatively weak and may be due to mechanical entrapment of the fibers within the matrix.
In addition, the authors noticed lateral movement of the fibers, which may affect creating accurate, mechanically robust, fiber embedded metallic structures. The grains around the fibers were refined and work hardening was induced because of the embedded fibers. Kong et al. They investigated plastic deformation of the matrix material around shape memory alloy SMA fibers, and bond quality, based on the microscopic observation and mechanical testing.
Scanning electron microscopy micrograph of SMA embedded specimen prepared at The fiber resistance to pulling was function of the compressive and frictional forces applied to the fiber circumference. Unusual results were obtained from the pullout test, as shown in Figure The authors attributed this behavior to the unique shape memory effect of SMA. At high amplitudes This effectively reduced its resistance to pulling, during loading, as the SMA fiber returned to its martensitic phase, with a smaller fiber diameter, as compared to the cavity created in the deformed matrix.
At a low amplitude 6. Fiber pullout test result of specimens consolidated at a In another work, the UC process was used [ 8 ] to embed more ductile temperature sensitive and flexible SMA fibers without visible deformation or damage to the fibers similar to Figure Modern structures using structural health monitoring require seamless distribution of sensors together with actuators both protected by the host material securing continuous measurement and correction. These materials constitute a new class of materials called nervous materials, which can behave and act as human skin and muscle combination coordinated with the sensory functions of the human nervous system to sense and react to external stimuli.
Such a computed reaction is conveyed to the structure by embedded actuators over the volume of the part or distributed over just the necessary volume. Conceptually, the sensor and actuators are embedded and parts assembled with interfaces as shown in Figure Sample of nervous material with embedded sensors and actuators with connectivity definition. Embedding of fiber optic sensors in metallic materials has been investigated by many researchers [ 8 , 86 , 87 , 88 , 89 , 90 ].
One of the objectives for this type of materials is to embed an FBG array optical fibers in multiple direction covering 3D space inside the material. The authors explored the possibility to embed the fibers with and without the polymer coating. The removal of the polymer coating led to full consolidation as can be seen in Figure 18 c; and neither the glass cladding nor its core were cracked. However, chipping to the glass cladding was observed in some specimens prepared under extreme contact pressure of kPa [ 8 ].
U-shaped groove built with SLM on SS substrates a , inserting Ni coated optical fiber inserted in the groove b and final encapsulation by continuing SLM process c [ 86 ]. The authors used Selective Laser Melting to incorporate U-shaped grooves in SS components with dimensions suitable to hold nickel coated optical fibers.
Coated optical fibers containing fiber Bragg gratings for strain monitoring and temperature sensing were placed in the groove. The embedding was completed by melting subsequent powder layers on top of the fibers. The authors reported a strong substance-to-substance bond between coated fiber and added SS material. Temperature and strain cycling of the embedded sensors demonstrated the ability of gratings to survive the embedding process, and act as sensing elements in harsh environments.
The gratings optical properties were maintained during the embedding process, enabling in-situ measurements of strain and temperature changes. Repeatable strain measurements with high dynamic stress levels have been demonstrated [ 86 ]. Maier et al. These embedded sensors would be capable of operating at extremely high temperatures by utilizing regenerated fiber Bragg gratings and in-fiber Fabry-Perot cavities [ 87 ]. Taylor et al. Baldini et al. Other researchers [ 6 , 91 ] cleaned the optical fibers and substrates, and then sputtered a conducting thin metallic film on the fibers.
This was followed by electroplating the fibers with a protective layer of Ni layer, and finally laser cladding the treated fiber with a stainless steel layer, which permitted sound embedding. They followed the same steps as reported in [ 6 , 91 ]. The authors found that cleaning the substrate prior to nickel deposition leads to embedding with full contact between the silica fibers and the Ni matrix. The electrolytically deposited nickel had a microstructure with a grain size of nm before laser cladding.
The deposition of stainless steel using LASDM led to grain growth and the grain size reached large values at 1. The embedded fibers significantly affected the transmitted light when the thickness of the nickel layer was less than 1. Li and coworkers [ 93 ] explored the possibility to embed metal-coated FBG in similar and dissimilar metals, i. In addition, they investigated the influence of protection methods on the embedability of the fibers. They used bare fibers as well as fibers coated using chemical plating chemical-electroplating fibers.
Since coating may affect the performance of the FBGs, the authors examined the thermal and strain sensing characteristics of the embedded FBGs. Typical Bragg peaks of a FBG before nickel coating, after nickel plating, and after ultrasonic welding embedding are shown in Figure 19 [ 93 ]. The authors noticed the preservation of the Bragg peaks form after the coating and consolidation.
However, they reported a shift down of the Bragg peak wavelength by about 4. The peak was further shifted down by 3. These shifts were attributed to the fact that the fiber is subjected to axial compression and thermal contraction of aluminum because of Ni deposition during plating and thermal contraction of aluminum substrate during cooling, respectively [ 93 ]. The authors reported that it was not possible to embed the bare fibers in Cu because of its high hardness. Similarly, embedding of the chemical plated fiber failed because of the welding pressure, vibration and friction.
However, the chemical-electroplating method yielded a well-protected FBG. The fiber was successfully embedded in aluminum as shown in Figure Protection of the fiber enhanced its temperature sensitivity to about twice of the unprotected fiber. The embedded FBGs in the welded structure were not destroyed when tensile load ranging from 0 to 40 N was applied. The wavelength and the load showed a linear trend [ 93 ].
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The authors evaluated the response of the FBGs to the applied tensile load. The wavelength shift for both FBGs followed a linear trend.
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This was attributed to the linear characteristic of the FBG and linear structural properties of the metal coating. The authors experimentally confirmed that when the tensile load 0—40 N is applied on the embedded FBGs, FBGs remained in good condition because any debonding may cause deviation from linear trend of the wavelength shift [ 93 ]. Masurtschak and coworkers [ 40 ] explored the possibility to create microchannels in Al H18 samples using fiber laser in order to make fiber layout patterns, which may reduce plastic flow and ease fiber embedding in UC process.
The effect of laser power, traverse speed and assist gas pressure on channel formation was investigated. The authors found that accurate melt distribution and channel geometry in the micrometer range could be easily obtained using multiple laser passes. The most influential parameters for channel creation were found to be the laser power density and traverse speed.
The Gaussian profile of the produced channels was suitable for secure positioning and embedding of circular profile fibers. However, their width was difficult to control, which may lead to the movement of fibers within the channels during ultrasonic consolidation [ 40 ]. Cutting tools with embedded FBG sensors were successfully developed using laser-based layered manufacturing processes [ 10 ]. The embedding process consisted of low temperature laser microdeposition of on-fiber silver thin films followed by nickel electroplating in a steel part.
A microscale laser-based direct write DW method, called laser-assisted maskless microdeposition LAMM , was employed to deposit silver thin films on optical fibers. To attain thin films with optimum quality, a characterization scheme was designed to study the geometrical, mechanical, and microstructural properties of the thin films in terms of the LAMM process parameters. To realize the application of embedded FBG sensors in machining tools, the electroplating process was followed by the deposition of a layer of tungsten carbide-cobalt WC-Co by using laser solid freeform fabrication LSFF.
An optomechanical model was also developed to predict the optical response of the embedded FBGs. The linear response of the embedded sensor showed the integrity of the layers and the absence of cracks, porosity, and delamination, which was also confirmed by microscopic imaging [ 10 ]. Li and coworkers [ 94 ] proposed a new technique for embedding FBG sensors into metals such as Ni. The technique involves low temperature processes, magnetron sputtering and electroplating. The optical fiber can be continuously electroplated into a thicker metallic layer or embedded into other metallic structures by high-temperature processing.
Havermann and coworkers [ 95 ] used bespoke laser based additive manufacturing technology to embed single mode optical fibers containing high reflectivity Bragg gratings into stainless steel components. The gratings survived the embedding process and acted as temperature or strain sensors. Li and coworkers [ 96 ] solved the problem of fiber Bragg grating FBG sensor protection and embedding in metal through nickel coating the FBG using chemical and electric plating method.
The metallized FBG was then embedded into 42CrMo steel successfully and a smart metal part was acquired. The heat did not wreak the FBG during soldering process. Temperature monitoring results showed the temperature sensitivity of FBG was increased twofold after metallization and soldering, and the temperature change was linear with reflection wavelength [ 96 ].
Li and coworkers [ 97 ] embedded fiber sensor in copper and aluminum foil using ultrasonic welding of T2 copper and L4 aluminum. Bare fiber, fiber with chemical plating coat and fiber with chemical-electro plating coat were used. They authors concluded that aluminum foil could be used for embedding the fiber sensor.
Chemical-electro plating method could be used as the protection method for the fiber sensor. The average embedding strength was 45 N and the light intensity loss was 0. Alemohammad and Toyserkani [ 10 ] developed a new technology for embedding FBGs in metal cutting tools where a hard machining surface, made of tungsten carbide-cobalt WC-Co , was deposited on the steel part.
Figure 21 [ 10 ] shows prototyped sample of cutting tools with embedded FBG sensors manufactured using laser-based layered manufacturing processes and electroplating. The authors claimed that the embedded FBG could act as a load and temperature monitoring device when the machining tool is in service. Havermann and co-authors [ 86 ] demonstrated the feasibility of embedding FBG into SS components by using powder bed based selective laser melting SLM for strain testing as shown in Figure The authors reported repeatable strain measurements with high dynamic stress levels.
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Image of steel sample with embedded FBG for strain testing [ 86 ]. The sensor placement in multiple directions needs more investigation to avoid neutral areas loose interface with the host material and hence be able to report useful information. The other challenge resides in the fact that the optical fiber sensor is highly delicate and brittle, and would be damaged during lengthy embedding processes to cover dimensions of the part.
Hence, embedding FBG sensors in metallic structures remains a challenging task. Furthermore, coating of FBG sensors with metallic films proved to be useful to protect them from damage when measuring high temperature and improve their performance in harsh environments, while it may alters the sensor sensitivity. Actuating bulky structure with embedded actuators is challenging at the moment depending on the actuation capacity, volumetric coverage of the embedded actuators and stiffness of the material.
Hence, structural shapes become sensitive, controllable and active reacting to external effects. It is hence required to develop miniaturized sensors not only able to be embedded in the structure without any loss of structural or functional performance i. The existing structures are metallic in nature but needing to be smart enough to inform about any constraint and possible unexpected failures. Special embedding techniques for two and three dimensions and associated problems need to be addressed in small and large part volume.
The future generation of materials is envisaged to behave more on biological analogy to human nervous system with distributed embedded sensor array and actuators architecture developing a biologically inspired nervous system. The new generation of materials that feels and reacts by reshaping with high performance to external effects and be able to improve functional characteristics e.
Future materials may inform about their weakness and advanced wear level. Light sent through fiber optics is able to generate acoustic vibrations.
The corresponding pitch can change with temperature and hence temperature mapping can be built around the fiber optics network. Several measurands can be monitored through fiber optics. With this feedback and required self-reaction, these materials will couple sensing, actuation, computation, and communication. Materials with embedded FGBs or equivalent sensors will be extensively used in structural measurements, failure prognosis, thermal measurements, and pressure monitoring to cite a few.
For difficult to reach or independent parts, powering the sensors and actuators can be challenging. Hence, power harvesting from within the part can constitute a fundamental solution if the level of produced power through vibration, ambient radio frequency RF , etc.
For example, the current airplane wings will have all the dozen of actuators, air brakes and flaps removed and replaced only by a wing with seamless embedded sensors and actuators to actuate flexibly the wing as required by the continuous measurements taken and analyzed by the on-board controller as shown in Figure A comprehensive review of embeddable fibers, embedding processes, and the behavior of fiber-embedded metallic materials was presented.
The following conclusions can be drawn from the present review:. Smart fibers were successfully embedded in metals, using a wide range of techniques, to create smart materials but at subsurface level only. Ultrasonic consolidation and laser-based layered manufacturing processes remain the most suitable techniques to embed optical fibers in metals. Some laboratory tested examples proved to be successful. Takeyama, Yoshikazu Bromley, Blair Patrick The axial-cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement fusion neutron generator IEC C-Device is a high-voltage, low-pressure glow discharge device that produces neutrons from the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction.
Olson, Richard Edward The plasma density and Xi, Chen Miao, Yinbin Uranium dioxide is the most common choice for fuel material in fission reactors. However, the radioactivity of uranium limits the experimental approaches on the oxide fuel material. Fortunately, cerium dioxide has been Subramani, Gnanasambandam Kinder, Ronald L.
Temple, Brian Allen The translation conservation laws were used in a two-dimensional computer simulation of the confined eddy problem to demonstrate an application of the equations. Comparison of the results produced by the code using the Bolind, Alan M. Wilson, Randall Joe Harrell, Jefferson A. Hatch, Steven W.
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