A generous intake of vegetables, fruits, soy products, red wine, and tea rich in antioxidants, which can eliminate ROS, is protective against cancer and heart disease[ 49 ]. Dietary intake of selenoneine might decrease the formation of ROS and the oxidation of nucleotides in DNA, and thereby inhibit carcinogenesis, chronic diseases, and aging Figure 4. Subcellular fractionation has localized selenoneine to the cytosolic fraction in erythrocytes and other animal cell types.
Thus, selenoneine might act as an antioxidant in the cytosol. Additionally, in response to such dual antioxidant systems, different types of GPx are involved in peroxide destruction. Selenoneine or total selenium might therefore serve as useful serum biomarkers. Although selenium is an important micronutrient that is linked to a variety of human and animal diseases, the organic selenium compound responsible for the antioxidant and redox mechanisms has never been identified and characterized.
Selenoneine is considered to play the major role as a strong radical scavenger in a variety of physiological and nutritional functions.
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We believe that characterization of this compound will accelerate biochemical and biomedical research on cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, immunological dysfunction, type 2 diabetes, MeHg toxicity, and aging, which could be related to selenium deficiency. Advanced Search. This Article. Citation of this article. Discovery of the strong antioxidant selenoneine in tuna and selenium redox metabolism.
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Selenium in Food and Health
Article-Type of This Article. Guidelines For Basic Science. Open-Access Policy of This Article. This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. Number of Hits and Downloads for This Article. Total Article Views All Articles published online. Times Cited of This Article. Journal Information of This Article. All rights reserved. World J Biol Chem. Author contributions : Yamashita Y, Yabu T and Yamashita M contributed to this paper; Yamashita Y designed the research, and contributed to chemical and nutritional analyses of organic selenium; Yabu T contributed to molecular and cell biology of the selenium compound; Yamashita M contributed to characterization of methylmercury accumulation and detoxification mechanisms; Yamashita Y and Yamashita M wrote the paper.
The monomeric form of the selenium compound is unstable under cold and room temperature conditions. A: Control; B: Selenoneine. The arrow shows a peak of selenoneine detected in the HUVEC extract with distilled water at a retention time of Thus, selenoneine was incorporated into the cells and promoted cell growth. Selenium compounds were separated with an Ultrahydrogel 7.
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GPx, selenite, selenocysteine, selenomethionine, and selenoneine were eluted at retention times of 5. The arrow shows the elution of selenoneine. Selenoproteins including GPx were eluted near the void volume of the column at 5. New aspects of physiological and pharmacological roles of selenium. J Health Sci. Rayman MP. The importance of selenium to human health. The Role of Selenium in Nutrition.
New York: Academic Press ;. Mozaffarian D. Fish, mercury, selenium and cardiovascular risk: current evidence and unanswered questions. Tissue-specific functions of individual glutathione peroxidases. Free Radic Biol Med. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Thioredoxin reductase. Biochem J. Selenoprotein P. A selenium-rich extracellular glycoprotein.
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New York: Plenum Press ;. Mercury: selenium interactions and health implications. Selenium redox cycling in the protective effects of organoselenides against oxidant-induced DNA damage. J Am Chem Soc. Identification of a novel selenium-containing compound, selenoneine, as the predominant chemical form of organic selenium in the blood of bluefin tuna. J Biol Chem. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Selenium. National Institute of Health, Combs GF Jr. Impact of selenium and cancer-prevention findings on the nutrition-health paradigm. Nutr Cancer.
Current evidence and research needs to support a health claim for selenium and cancer prevention. Selenium and anticarcinogenesis: underlying mechanisms. Plasma levels of selenium, selenoprotein P and glutathione peroxidase and their correlations to fish intake and serum levels of thyrotropin and thyroid hormones: a study on Latvian fish consumers. Eur J Clin Nutr. Bioavailability of selenium from fish, yeast and selenate: a comparative study in humans using stable isotopes. Absorption of selenium from wheat, garlic, and cod intrinsically labeled with Se and Se stable isotopes.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res. Chronic toxicity and retention of dietary selenium fed to rats as D- or L-selenomethionine, selenite, or selenate. Nutr Res.
Selenium metabolism and platelet glutathione peroxidase activity in healthy Finnish men: effects of selenium yeast, selenite, and selenate. Am J Clin Nutr. Schrauzer GN. Selenomethionine: a review of its nutritional significance, metabolism and toxicity. FEBS Lett.
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Tokyo: Koseisha-Koseikaku ; Reduced reliance on the trace element selenium during evolution of mammals. Genome Biol.
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Dietary and tissue selenium in relation to methylmercury toxicity. September , The World's Healthiest Foods are health-promoting foods that can change your life. The George Mateljan Foundation is a not-for-profit foundation with no commercial interests or advertising. Our mission is to help you eat and cook the healthiest way for optimal health. What's New and Beneficial about Salmon With so much focus on the amazing omega-3 benefits of salmon, other unique health benefits from salmon may have been inadvertently overlooked. One fascinating new area of health benefits involves the protein and amino acid content of salmon.
Several recent studies have found that salmon contains small bioactive protein molecules called bioactive peptides that may provide special support for joint cartilage, insulin effectiveness, and control of inflammation in the digestive tract. One particular bioactive peptide called calcitonin sCT has been of special interest in these studies.
The reason is because a human form of calcitonin is made by the thyroid gland, and we know that it is a key hormone for helping regulate and stabilize the balance of collagen and minerals in the bone and surrounding tissue. As researchers learn more and more about salmon peptides—including sCT—we expect to see more and more potential health benefits discovered related to inflammation, including inflammation of the joints.
Even though contamination with mercury, pesticides, and persistent organic pollutants POPS has become a widespread problem in salmon habitats and has often compromised the quality of salmon itself, there are still some good alternatives for wild-caught salmon including species caught near New Zealand, Norway, and the West Coast of the United States including Alaska.
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